NM-450

INSTALLATION, OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE
INSTRUCTIONS FOR VRLA DIESEL LOCOMOTIVE AND ENGINE STARTING BATTERIES

A. SAFETY PRECAUTIONS

EXPLOSION - can result from the gases produced by a battery.

  • Valve-regulated lead-acid (VRLA) batteries contain an explosive mixture of hydrogen gas. Do not smoke, use an open flame, or create sparks in the vicinity of a battery. This includes static electricity from the body.
  • Only charge a battery in a well-ventilated area with the battery compartment open for maximum ventilation.
  • Do not charge the battery at a greater current than shown in Section F.
  • Verify polarities before making any electrical connections.

HANDLING - Injury may occur from the improper handling of batteries.

  • Only authorized personnel should handle these batteries.
  • Wear rubber gloves and boots.
  • Use proper lifting methods when moving batteries and wear appropriate safety clothing and equipment.
  • Do not dispose of VRLA batteries except through channels in accordance with local, state and federal regulations.

ELECTRIC SHOCK - cells connected in series have HIGH VOLTAGES that could produce a human shock hazard.

  • Only authorized personnel should be permitted to work on these batteries.
  • Remove watches, rings or other metal objects.
  • Use insulated tools to prevent inadvertent shorts.
  • Do not lay tools or metal parts on batteries which could result in an inadvertent short.
  • Disconnect all loads and power sources before working on battery. Use appropriate Lock-out / Tag-out procedures.

BURNS - Under normal operating conditions VRLA batteries virtually eliminate acid misting and acid leakage. However, one should be aware that burns can be caused by sulfuric acid contained within the batteries.

  • Do not get acid in eyes, on skin or clothing. In case of contact, flush immediately and thoroughly with clean water. Obtain medical attention when eyes are affected.
  • Be sure to have appropriate safety equipment when working with batteries, including but not limited to:
    • Rubber gloves and apron
    • Safety glasses, face shields
    • Fire extinguisher
    • Acid spill cleanup kit
    • Emergency eye wash
    • Shower, if available

B. UNPACKING
  • Upon receipt (while carrier is on-site), inventory all materials against bill of lading. Examine packaging and product for shipping damage. Note any damage or wetness or stains, indicating electrolyte leakage.
  • During transit the battery may have lost some of its charge. A freshening charge is recommended per Section F prior to operation.
  • Do not attempt to remove the pressure relief valves or vent covers as this will void any warranty.
    Attempting to remove vents may damage the valve and prevent it from functioning properly.
  • Verify that all connectors (solid and/or cable) are securely mounted. Never lift or move batteries by terminals.

C. LOCATION
  • Battery compartment must be well ventilated but in such a way as to keep out water, oil, and dirt. Locate and install the battery so that the cells are easily accessible for inspections.
  • Batteries in service on moving vehicles should have the trays seated firmly and blocked to avoid shifting. Leave an overall clearance of 1/8”. Do not wedge tight.

D. CONNECTING THE BATTERY
  • Connecting cables must be flexible and long enough to not create a strain on the battery terminals. Arrange the trays so that the position of the terminals goes in a positive to negative fashion. The positive terminal will be painted red, or marked either POS. or +. The negative will be painted black, or marked either NEG. or -.
  • The battery connection can be referenced in the following assembly drawing (Dwg. # 320.026-1).
  • Before connecting up the battery, inspect all terminals for corrosion. In the event that corrosion is present refer to Section G for cleaning procedure. All connectors should be wiped with a clean cloth and a thin coat of NO-OX-ID grease applied before use. After securely tightening connections, wipe off all excess grease.
  • In connecting the battery to a generator or electrical system, connect the positive of the generator to the positive of the battery and the negative of the generator to the negative of the battery.

WARNING: DO NOT CONNECT ANY “TAPS” TO INTERMEDIATE POINTS ON THE BATTERY.
ANY DEVICE CONNECTED TO INTERMEDIATE POINTS WILL OVERWORK ONE SECTION OF THE BATTERY AND CAUSE OVER-CHARGING OF THE REMAINING SECTION.


E. GENERAL SPEC

1. Rating and Dimension

No. Type No.
of
Cells
Batt.
Voltage
(V)
C8@
25°C,
1.70V
C5@
25°C,
1.70V
C1@
25°C,
1.60V
Max. Overall Dimensions (inch/mm)
L W H
1 16NM-450 16 32 500 Ah 450 Ah 325 Ah 71.5 /1816 14.02 /356 16.87 /429


2. Actual Capacity at different discharge rates


3. Actual Capacity at different temperatures


4. Capacity coefficient (Kc) Curve


5. Starting performance at normal temperature (NM-450 battery, 2100A)


6. Low temperature starting performance @-40℃ (NM-450 battery, 1700A)


7. Actual Capacity during Charge


8. Internal Resistance vs SOC


9. NM-450 Battery I-V Curve @25℃


10. Self-Discharge Curve


11. Cycle Life


12. Float Life


13. Charge Strategy

Temperature compensation of -3mv/℃/cell shall be taken into consideration in the course of charge. For details, see the table below.

Temperature (℃) Bulk Voltage (VPC) Float Voltage (VPC)
0 2.39 2.33
10 2.39 2.30
20 2.37 2.27
25 2.35 2.25
30 2.33 2.23
35 2.32 2.22
40 2.30 2.22
50 2.30 2.22
>=55 Transfer to float 2.22


F. INITIAL/FRESHENING CHARGE
  • These batteries require constant voltage and current limited charging
  • The cells in this battery are meant to be charged at 2.30〜2.35 Volts per cell with a maximum charging current of 0.30c amperes (135A). Never exceed 2.35 volts per cell at 25’C. Currents lower than 0.30c are acceptable.
  • Charging times should typically take 12〜24 hours. Times will vary depending on usage and climate conditions. Select the highest voltage your system will allow without exceeding 2.35 volts per cell. If each discharge is only for “Start”, 8 hours charge is acceptable. Also when current drop to 5A, charge can be transferred to float.
  • When charging current has decreased and stabilized (i.e., no further reduction for three hours), the state of charge is approximately 95 to 98%. Full charge can be assumed.


MAINTENANCE
G. INSPECTIONS
  • Batteries lose some initial charge during shipment or storage. Depending on storage time, the battery may require a freshening charge. Normal open circuit cell voltages should be 2.13 volts or higher. In the event that lower voltages are observed a freshening charge per Section F should be administered.
  • Observe battery for cleanliness at regular intervals. Keep cell terminals and connectors free of corrosion. Terminal corrosion could adversely affect performance of the battery and it could present a safety hazard.
  • To clean corrosion from the battery:
    • Disconnect battery
    • Remove corrosion by wiping with a cloth dampened with Bicarbonate of soda solution [mix 1 gallon (4 liters) of water with 1 lb. (500g) of Bicarbonate of soda.] A brass bristle brush may also be used for heavy corrosion
    • Follow with cloth dampened with water.
    • Dry with clean dry cloth
    • Apply a thin coating of heated NO-OX-ID grease to the entire bolted connection with a small paint brush.
    • After securely tightening connections, wipe off all excess grease.
  • A thin layer of NO-OX-ID grease is to be present around all terminals connections. In the event that this coating is removed a new thin layer should be applied with a small paintbrush.
  • Verify that all connectors (solid and/or cable) are securely mounted. M10 bolts should be connected with a torque-wrench set to 177 in-lbs. (20 N*m)

H. ACCESSORIES

A. NO-OX-ID Grease (8oz) Catalog #82853

REPAIRS

EnerSys, VRLA Diesel Engine Starting Batteries require no normal repairs, or overhauling during its life. If any damages or circumstances necessitate such attention, contact your local EnerSys Service Representative.

SPECIAL SUBJECTS
I. STORAGE OF BATTERIES
  • Batteries should be stored in a cool, clean, dry, and well ventilated location away from any source of heat and protected from direct sunlight. Storage at higher temperatures will result in accelerated rates of self-discharge and possible deterioration of battery performance and life.
  • The maximum storage time from shipment to initial charge is six months for batteries stored at ambient temperatures no warmer than 77⁰F (25⁰C). For storage temperatures greater than 77oF (25⁰C), the battery must be recharged one (1) month sooner for every 5⁰F (3⁰C) increase above 77⁰F (25⁰C), see Table I.1.

    TABLE I.1
    STO RAGE TEMPERATURE STORAGE TIME
    32° F (0°C) to 50°F (10°C) 9 months
    51°F (11°C) to 77°F (25°C) 6 months
    78°F (26°C) to 92°F (33°C) 3 months

    Refer to Section F for charging information.
  • Repeat the freshening charge per Section F for each additional storage interval until the battery is installed.
  • The maximum total storage time prior to installation and use is two (2) years from the date of shipment from the factory to the customer. Freshening charges are required before the end of the storage time period or more frequently as defined in Table I.1.
  • FAILURE TO CHARGE AS NOTED VOIDS THE BATTERIES WARRANTY.
  • Never attempt to stack product. DAMAGE MAY OCCUR AND THE WARRANTY MAY BE VOIDED.


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